Simulation 1—No Outliers | Simulation 2—Outliers | ||||
Method | RMSE of Fitted Data | RMSE Relative to the Mean (%) | RMSE of Fitted Data | RMSE Relative to the Mean (%) | Percentage Difference in RMSE |
Mean | 0.836 | 0.0 | 1.226 | 0.0 | 46.6 |
Elastic net with year as factor | 0.826 | –1.2 | 1.229 | +0.3 | 48.8 |
Kalman filter | 0.822 | –1.7 | 1.155 | –5.8 | 40.6 |
Bayesian model | 0.651 | –22.2 | 0.887 | –27.6 | 36.3 |
Additive model^{a} | 0.695 | –16.9 | 0.954 | –22.1 | 37.3 |
RSSM | 0.664 | –20.6 | 0.889 | –27.4 | 33.9 |